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4 Types of Heart Defect Commonly Found with New Born Down Syndrome Baby

4 Types of Heart Defect Commonly Found with New Born Down Syndrome Baby

What are the most common heart defects in children with Down syndrome?
The most common defects are atrioventricular septal defect (formally called endocardial cushion defect), ventricular septal defect, persistent ductus arteriosus, and tetralogy of Fallot.
What is an Atrioventricular Septal Defect?
An atrioventricular septal defect is caused by a failure of tissue to come together in the heart during embryonic life. This results in a large opening in the center of the heart, with usually a hole between the two pumping chambers (a ventricular septal defect) and between the two collecting chambers (an atrial septal defect), as well as abnormalities of the two atrioventricular valves (the mitral and tricuspid valves). Of those children with Down syndrome who are born with congenital heart disease, an atrioventricular septal defect is the most common. In less severe cases, ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects can occur separately.
What is Persistent Ductus Arteriosus 动脉导管?
The ductus arteriosus is a channel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. During fetal life, it diverts blood away from the lungs because prenatal blood is already oxygenated from the mother. After birth, this channel usually closes on the first day of life. If it does not close, it is termed “persistent” and results in an increased flow of blood into the lungs.
What is Tetralogy of Fallot?
This is a term given to a heart condition composed of 4 abnormalities:
1. Ventricular心室 septal defect
2. A narrowing of the passage from the right ventricle心室 to the lungs
3. An over-enlarged right ventricle because of the backup of blood
4. An over-enlarged aorta大动脉, which carries blood from the left ventricle to the body

What is the relationship of heart defects to the respiratory呼吸 system?
The lungs of children with Down syndrome do not develop as fully as they do in the general population. Consequently, the growth of blood vessels throughout the lungs is limited. The narrowed arteries of the lungs hold potential for lasting consequences because of the increased pressure and flow of blood through the lungs.
How are the defects diagnosed?
Some children with Down syndrome and major heart defects will have heart failure, difficulty breathing, and failure to thrive in the newborn period. In some children, however, the defect may not be apparent at first, so it is important that all children born with Down syndrome, even those who have no symptoms of heart disease, have an echocardiogram 超声心动图in the first 2 or 3 months of life. Some heart conditions are also identified during prenatal ultrasounds.

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